Since an easier class is included as a subset of a harder one, it is helpful to have a notion of a language (i.e., problem) being among the hardest possible within a class. Let X refer to either P, NP, PSPACE, or EXPTIME. A language is called X-hard if every language in class X is polynomial-time reducible to . In short, this means that in polynomial time, any language in can be translated into instances for language , and then the decisions for can be correctly translated back in polynomial time to correctly decide . Thus, if can be decided, then within a polynomial-time factor, every language in X can be decided. The hardness concept can even be applied to a language (problem) that does not belong to the class. For example, we can declare that a language is NP-hard even if NP (it could be harder and lie in EXPTIME, for example). If it is known that the language is both hard for some class X and is also a member of X, then it is called X-complete (i.e., NP-complete, PSPACE-complete, etc.).6.8 Note that because of this uncertainty regarding P, NP, and PSPACE, one cannot say that a problem is intractable if it is NP-hard or PSPACE-hard, but one can, however, if the problem is EXPTIME-hard. One additional remark: it is useful to remember that PSPACE-hard implies NP-hard.
Steven M LaValle 2020-08-14