## 4.3.2 Explicitly Modeling : The Translational Case

It is important to understand how to construct a representation of . In some algorithms, especially the combinatorial methods of Chapter 6, this represents an important first step to solving the problem. In other algorithms, especially the sampling-based planning algorithms of Chapter 5, it helps to understand why such constructions are avoided due to their complexity.

The simplest case for characterizing is when for , , and , and the robot is a rigid body that is restricted to translation only. Under these conditions, can be expressed as a type of convolution. For any two sets , let their Minkowski difference4.10 be defined as and (4.37)

in which is just vector subtraction on . The Minkowski difference between and can also be considered as the Minkowski sum of and . The Minkowski sum is obtained by simply adding elements of and in (4.37), as opposed to subtracting them. The set is obtained by replacing each by .

In terms of the Minkowski difference, . To see this, it is helpful to consider a one-dimensional example.

Example 4..13 (One-Dimensional C-Space Obstacle)   In Figure 4.12, both the robot and obstacle region are intervals in a one-dimensional world, . The negation, , of the robot is shown as the interval . Finally, by applying the Minkowski sum to and , the C-space obstacle, , is obtained.  The Minkowski difference is often considered as a convolution. It can even be defined to appear the same as studied in differential equations and system theory. For a one-dimensional example, let be a function such that if and only if . Similarly, let be a function such that if and only if . The convolution (4.38)

yields a function , for which if , and otherwise.

Subsections
Steven M LaValle 2012-04-20